Harvard Scientist Explains Which UFOs Over Ukraine Could Be Extraterrestrial Spacecraft

Chưa phân loại

The head of the Galileo Project Dr. Avi Loeb has shared his thoughts on the UAP phenomenon noticed by the Ukraine scientists over the skies of the city of Kyiv, whose nature is unclear. He published a scientific paper on the matter after the request of the United States government and explained if the unidentified objects over Ukraine are probes sent by a̳l̳i̳e̳n̳ c̳i̳v̳i̳l̳i̳z̳a̳t̳i̳o̳n̳s or manmade.

Before looking into Dr. Loeb’s study on the Ukraine UAP phenomenon, let us first understand the research shared by Ukrainian astronomers. According to a study published by Kyiv’s Main Astronomical Observatory in coordination with the country’s National Academy of Science, a significant number of objects were identified all over the skies of Kyiv, whose nature was not clear.

According to their data, they classified UAPs into two types, “Cosmics” and “Phantoms.” They noted Cosmics are luminous objects, brighter than the background of the sky and Phantoms are dark objects, with contrast from several to about 50 percent. The researchers also observed that the U̳F̳O̳s are so fast that it is hard to take pictures of them.

The researchers established two meteor stations, one is installed in Kyiv, and the other one is in the Vinarivka village in the south of the Kyiv region. Observations of objects were carried out in the daytime sky. The brightness of the sky, depending on the state of the atmosphere and the distance from the Sun ranges from minus 3 to minus 5 stellar magnitudes per square arc minute.

The researcher concludes a broad range of UAPs are everywhere, and there is a significant number of objects whose nature is not clear. “Flights of single, group, and squadrons of the ships were detected, moving at speeds from 3 to 15 degrees per second. Some bright objects exhibit regular brightness variability in 10 – 20 Hz range. Two-site observations of UAPs at a base of 120 km with two synchronized cameras allowed the detection of a variable object, at an altitude of 1170 km.”

Dr. Loeb’s Study

Dr. Avi Loeb has published his study entitled “DOWN TO EARTH” LIMITS ON UNIDENTIFIED AERIAL PHENOMENA” on the open-access arXiv.org website. He notices that the dark objects “Phantoms” with no visible emission were characterized by the size of 3–12 meters and speeds up to 15 kilometers per second at a distance of up to 10–12 kilometers. According to the current scientific advancement that humans have achieved so far, these objects exceed the capabilities of man-made aircraft or rockets.

However, Dr. Loeb realized that the distance of these dark objects must have been incorrectly overestimated by an order of magnitude, or else their bow shock in the Earth’s atmosphere would have generated a bright fireball with an easily detectable optical luminosity.

He explained the potential non-human origin of these objects can be identified in two forms: space trash, similar to our interstellar probes (Voyager 1 & 2, Pioneer 10 & 11, and New Horizons) will appear in a billion years, or functional equipment, such as autonomous devices equipped with Artificial Intelligence (AI). He further noted that the latter would be an ideal choice for crossing the tens of thousands of light years that span the scale of the Milky Way galaxy and could survive even if the senders are not able to communicate.

In his paper, he points out that any device or object with a speed of tens of kilometers per second (for example with 30 kilometers per second, a probe would cross twice the distance of the Sun from the Milky Way center within a time of half a billion years), passing through the Earth’s atmosphere would inevitably be accompanied by optical emission due to its supersonic motion.

“I showed that an object with a frontal cross-sectional area of 10 square meters, moving at a supersonic speed of 10 kilometers per second must create a bow shock in the Earth’s atmosphere and dissipate a mechanical power of 1.5 terra-Watt at an elevation of 10 kilometers. Data on meteors implies that about a tenth of the kinetic power is radiated away in the optical band, implying that the reported properties of the phantom objects above Ukraine would result in fireball of visible luminosity above 150 giga-Watt. For a path length 10 kilometers, the emission would last at least a second and cannot be missed.

I concluded that the reported speeds and sizes of the “phantom” objects would have generated fireballs of detectable optical luminosity at their suggested distances, and so these objects could not have appeared dark. However, if the phantom objects are ten times closer than suggested, then their angular motion on the sky corresponds to a physical velocity that is ten times smaller, 1.5 kilometers per second and their inferred transverse size would be 0.3–1.2 meters, both characteristic of artillery shells.”

The Ukrainian astronomers also identified a luminous and variable object at an altitude of 1,170 kilometers, which was detected through two-site observations above Ukraine. This object is likely a satellite, Dr. Loeb suggested.

Moreover, according to Ukraine’s MAO NASU Scientific Council, the study’s results had reportedly not been reviewed or otherwise discussed by the observatory before its preprint publication. The statement adds that the alleged aerial phenomenon depicted by the study’s authors was obtained while in “test mode” during scheduled meteor observations. (Source)

MAO NASU council stated, “Observations conducted by B.Yu. Zhilyaev and his colleagues are original. But the processing and interpretation of results were performed at an inappropriate scientific level and with significant errors in determining distances to the observed objects. Also, the dates of observations are absent in the paper; the authors do not indicate which events were observed simultaneously from two sites; the authors do not provide arguments that natural phenomena or artificial objects of earthly origin may be among the observed UAPs (meteors; objects carried by the wind over long distances; space debris, artifacts, etc.).

Additionally, the Council said the authors “do not provide arguments that natural phenomena or artificial objects of earthly origin may be among the observed UAPs,” further noting that in the absence of critical analysis for errors and accuracy in processing of their data, “the authors postulate unreasonable conclusions about the characteristics of the observed objects as UAPs.”

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *